INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE ON PEACE EDUCATION

IIPE 2010 (coming soon) | IIPE 2009 | Apply | Philosophy | History | 25th Anniversary
Vision & Philosophy | Support Materials | CIPE Reports & Resources
About IIPE & CIPE | Getting Involved | Donate | Contact Us | Advisory Group

Statement to CSW 57 on Military Violence against Women

Please help us spread the word by sharing on facebook.

 

Violence against Women is Integral to War and Armed Conflict - The Urgent Necessity of the Universal Implementation of UNSCR 1325

 

A Statement on Military Violence against Women addressed to the 57th Session of the United Nations Commission on the Status of Women, March 4-15, 2013

>>Click here or scroll to the bottom to endorse the statement

>>Click here to see current endorsements

(This is an abstract for a longer paper being prepared for publication by Betty Reardon. The assertions that comprise the arguments of this statement derive from literature on gender and peace.)


Introduction

On the final day of the 57th Commission on the Status of Women there was relief among peace activists that the Agreed Conclusions included support for the Arms Trade Treaty and made reference to UNSCRs 1325 and 1820. However, it reflected far from adequate attention to issues of women’s right to participate in security policy making and the necessity to move forward on the full implementation of 1325 on Women, Peace and Security. The statement below is still as urgent as it was when circulated in the first days of CSW. We will continue to circulate the Statement for future presentation to UN Women, and consideration by those working toward the implementation of 1325.

Since the first version was circulated we have added a recommendation on the abolition of nuclear weapons as requested by some endorsers.  While these genocidal weapons are a threat to all living things, the particular effects of radioactive fallout on women will be included in the full discussion of multiple forms of military violence against women in a more detailed future article. More recently two forms of MVAW were also added, humiliation, upon learning of incidents in the DRC, and harm to health and wellbeing, acknowledging consequences of long-term weapons testing on the Puerto Rican island of Vieques. We will continue to add more forms of MVAW as we become aware of them.   

We invite more endorsements to augment the over 100 organizations and 148 individuals world-wide who had endorsed the Statement as of this date.


The Statement

Violence against women (VAW) under the present system of militarized state security is not an aberration that can be stemmed by specific denunciations and prohibitions. VAW is and always has been integral to war and all armed conflict. It pervades all forms of militarism.  It is likely to endure so long as the institution of war is a legally sanctioned instrument of state; so long as arms are the means to political, economic or ideological ends. To reduce VAW; to eliminate its acceptance as a “regrettable consequence” of armed conflict; to exorcize it as a constant of the “real world” requires the abolition of war, the renunciation of armed conflict and the full and equal political empowerment of women as called for by the UN Charter.

UN Security Council Resolution 1325 was conceived as a response to the exclusion of women from security policy making, in the belief that such gender exclusion is a significant factor in the perpetuation of war and VAW. The originators assumed that VAW in all its multiple forms, in ordinary daily life as well as in times of crisis and conflict remains a constant because of women’s limited political power. Constant, quotidian VAW is unlikely to be significantly reduced until women are fully equal in all public policy making, including and especially peace and security policy. The universal implementation of UN Security Council Resolution 1325 on Women, Peace and Security is the most essential means to reduce and eliminate the VAW that occurs in armed conflict, in preparation for combat and in its aftermath.  Stable peace requires gender equality. Fully functioning gender equality requires the dissolution of the present system of militarized state security. The two goals are inextricably linked one to the other.

To understand the integral relationship between war and VAW, we need to understand some of the functions that various forms of military violence against women serve in the conduct of war. Focusing on that relationship reveals that the objectification of women, denial of their humanity and fundamental personhood encourages VAW in armed conflict, just as dehumanization of the enemy persuades armed forces to kill and wound enemy combatants. It also reveals that the outlawing of all weapons of mass destruction, reducing the  stocks and destructive power of all weaponry, ending the arms trade and other systematic steps toward General and Complete Disarmament (GCD) are essential to the elimination of military violence against women (MVAW.) This statement seeks to encourage support for disarmament, the strengthening and enforcement of international law and the universal implementation of UNSCR 1325 as instruments for the elimination of MVAW.

War is a legally sanctioned tool of state. The UN Charter calls upon members to refrain from the threat and use of force (Art.2.4), but also recognizes the right of defense (Art. 51) None-the-less most instances of VAW are war crimes. The Rome Statute of the ICC substantiates rape as a war crime. However, the fundamental patriarchalism of the international state system perpetuates impunity for most perpetrators, a fact finally recognized by the UN in the adoption of UNSCR 2106.So the full extent of the crimes, their relationship to the actual waging of war and the possibilities for the enforcement of the criminal accountability of those who have committed them need to be brought into all discussions on the prevention and elimination of MVAW. A greater understanding of particular manifestations of these crimes and the integral role they play in warfare may lead to some fundamental changes in the international security system, changes conducive to ending war itself. To promote such understanding, listed below are some forms and functions of MVAW.

Identifying Forms of Military Violence and their Functions in Warfare 

Listed below are several forms of military violence against women (MVAW) committed by military personnel, rebels or insurgents, peace keepers and military contractors, suggesting the function each serves in waging war.  The core concept of violence from which these types and functions of military violence are derived is the assertion that violence is intentional harm, committed to achieve some purpose of the perpetrator. Military violence comprises those harms committed by military personnel that are not a necessity of combat, but none-the-less an integral part of it. All sexual and gender based violence is outside actual military necessity. It is this reality that is recognized in the Beijing Platform for Action’s addressing of armed conflict and the Security Council resolutions 1820, 1888 and 1889 and 2106 that seek to curb MVAW.

Included among the types of MVAW identified below are: military prostitution, trafficking and sexual slavery; random rape in armed conflict and in and around military bases; strategic rape; the use of military arms to inflict violence against women in post-conflict as well as conflict situations; impregnation as ethnic cleansing; sexual torture; sexual violence within the organized military and domestic violence in military families; domestic violence and spouse murders by combat veterans; public humiliation and damage to health. No doubt there are forms of MVAW not taken into account here.

Military prostitution and the sexual exploitation of women have been features of warfare throughout history. At present brothels can be found around military bases and at the sites of peace-keeping operations.  Prostitution - usually work of desperation for women – is openly tolerated, even organized by the military, as essential to the “morale” of the armed forces. Sexual services are deemed essential provisions for waging war -  to strengthen the “fighting will” of the troops. Military sex workers are frequently victims of rape, various forms of physical abuse and murder.

Trafficking and sexual slavery is a form of VAW that stems from the idea that sexual services are necessary to fighting troops.  The case of the “comfort women,” enslaved by the Japanese military during WWII is the best known, perhaps the most egregious instance of this type of military VAW. Trafficking to military bases continues to this day abetted by the impunity enjoyed by the traffickers and their military facilitators. More recently, trafficked women have been literally enslaved in conflict and post-conflict peacekeeping operations. Women’s bodies are used as military supplies. Viewing and treating women as commodities is absolute objectification. Objectification of other human beings is standard practice in making war acceptable to combatants and civil populations of nations at war.

Random rape in armed conflict and around military bases is an expected and accepted consequence of the militarized security system. It illustrates that militarism in any form increases the possibilities of sexual violence against women in militarized areas in “peace time” as well as war time.  This form of MVAW has been well documented by Okinawa Women Act against Military Violence. OWAAMV has recorded the reported rapes of local women by American military personnel from the invasion in 1945 to the present. The consequence of the misogyny that infects military training, when it occurs in war rape functions as an act of intimidation and humiliation of the enemy.

Strategic and mass rapes - like all sexual assaults – this deliberately planned and undertaken form of MVAW intends to inflict sexual violence as a mean of humiliating, not only the actual victims, but, most especially their societies, ethnic groups, and/or nations. It is also intended to lessen the adversary’s will to fight.  As a planned assault on the enemy, large scale rape is a special egregious form of military violence against women, usually inflicted en masse in attacks that demonstrate the objectification of women as property of the enemy, military targets rather than human beings. It serves to shatter the social and familial cohesion of the adversary in that women are the base of societal relationships and domestic order.

Military arms as instruments of VAW are used in the rape, mutilation, and murder of non-combatant women. Weapons are often the emblems of manhood, conceived within patriarchy, as tools for enforcing male power and dominance. The numbers and destructive power of weapons are a source of national pride in the militarized state security system, argued to provide defensive deterrence. The militarized masculinity of patriarchal cultures makes aggressive masculinity and access to weapons enticements to many young men to enlist in the military.

Impregnation as ethnic cleansing has been designated by some human rights advocates as a form of genocide. Significant instances of this type of MVAW have occurred before the eyes of the world.  The military objective of these purposeful rapes is to undermine the adversary in several ways, the main one being by reducing the future numbers of their people and replacing them with the offspring of the perpetrators, robbing them of a future and a reason to continue to resist.

Sexual torture, psychological as well as physical, is meant to terrorize the civilian population of an enemy nation, ethnic group or an opposing political group, intimidating them so as to gain compliance to occupation or to discourage civilian support of the military and strategic actions of the opposing group. It is often inflicted on the wives and female family members of opposing political forces, as has happened in military dictatorships. It manifests the general misogyny of patriarchy intensified during war so as to reinforce objectification of women and “otherness” of the enemy.

Sexual violence in military ranks and domestic violence in military families has recently become more widely publicized through the courage of victims, women who have risked their military careers and further harassment by speaking out. Nothing makes more obvious the integral relationship of MVAW to war, to preparation for it and to post conflict than its prevalence within the ranks of the military. While not officially condoned or encouraged (It recently came  under congressional investigation and review by the US Department of Defense) it still continues where there are women in armed forces, serving to maintain the secondary and subservient position of women, and the intensification of aggressive masculinity, idealized as military virtue.

Domestic violence (DV) and spouse murder by combat veterans occurs on the home return of veterans of combat. This form of MVAW is especially dangerous because of the presence of weapons in the home. Believed to be a consequence of both combat training and PTSD, DV and spouse abuse in military families it derives in part from the systemic and integral role of VAW in the psychology of some warriors and symbolizes extreme and aggressive masculinity.

Public humiliation has been used to intimidate women and cast shame on their societies, a means of denying human dignity and self worth. It is an assertion of coercive power intended to establish the superiority and control of those inflicting it, often the victor in a conflict on women of the vanquished or the resistant. Strip searching andenforced nudity demonstrating the vulnerability of the victims have been used for this purpose recently in African conflicts.

Harm to health, physical and psychological well-being is suffered by women not only conflict areas, but also in post conflict areas where sustenance and services do not assure fundamental human needs. It also occurs in areas of military training and weapons testing.  In such areas the environment tends to become toxic, harming the general health of the local population, it is especially harmful to women’s reproductive health, producing sterility, miscarriages and birth defects. Beyond the physical harm, being in the area of constant military activity – even if only training and testing - with a high noise level and the daily fear of accidents take a high toll on psychological health. These are among the uncounted costs of the militarized security system that women pay in the name of a “necessity of national security,” constant preparation and readiness for armed conflict.

Conclusions and Recommendations

The present system of militarized state security is an ever-present threat to the human security of women. This very real security threat will continue so long as states claim the right to engage in armed conflict as a means to the ends of the state; and so long as women are without adequate political power to assure their human rights, including their rights to human security sacrificed to the security of the state. The ultimate means to overcome this ongoing and pervasive security threat is the abolition of war and the achievement of gender equality.  Some of the tasks to be undertaken toward this end are: the implementation of the Security Council resolutions 1820, 1888 and 1889 intended to reduce and mitigate MVAW; actualizing all of the possibilities of UNSCR 1325 with emphasis on the political participation of women in all matters of peace and security, reiterated in UNSCR 2106; pursuing measures that hold promise of achieving and end to war itself, such as the following recommendations. Originally put forth for the outcome document of CSW 57, peace activists and educators are urged to continue pursuing them.

Some specific recommended tasks include measures to end violence against women and measures that are steps toward the ending of war as an instrument of state.

1. Immediate compliance by all member states with the provisions of UNSCR 1325 and 2106 calling for women’s political participation in the prevention of armed conflict.

2. Development and implementation of National Action Plans to actualize the provisions and purposes of UNSCR 1325 in all relevant circumstances and at all levels of governance - local through global.

3. Special emphasis should be placed on immediate implementation of the anti VAW provisions of UNSCR resolutions 1820, 1888 and 1889.

4. End impunity for war crimes against women by bringing to justice all perpetrators of MVAW, including national armed forces, insurgents, peacekeepers or military contractors. Citizens should take action to assure that their governments comply with the anti-impunity provisions of UNSCR 2106. If needed to do so member states should enact and implement legislation to criminalize and prosecute all forms of MVAW.

5. Take immediate steps to sign, ratify, implement and enforce the Arms Trade Treaty (opened for signature on June 3, 2013) to end the flow of weapons that increase the frequency and destructiveness of violent conflict, and are used as instruments of MVAW.

6. GCD (General and Complete Disarmament under international controls) should be declared the primary goal of all arms treaties and agreements that should be formulated with a view toward: reduction and elimination of MVAW, the universal renunciation of nuclear weapons and repudiation of armed force as a means to conduct conflict. Negotiation of all such agreements should involve the full participation of women as called for by UNSCRs 1325 and 2106. GCD and gender equality are the essential and fundamental means of assurance of a just and viable world peace.

7. Conduct a global campaign to educate about all forms of MVAW and the possibilities that the Security Council Resolutions offer for overcoming them . This campaign is to be directed toward the general public, schools, all public institutions and civil society organizations. Special efforts should be made to assure that all members of all police, military, peacekeeping forces and military contractors are educated about both MVAW and the legal consequences risked by perpetrators.

Educators and activists undertaking to advance such a campaign are requested to inform the International Institute on Peace Education (IIPE) of their efforts so as to share them with other educators.

 

Drafted by Betty Reardon March 2013, revised March 2014, continuing to gather endorsement in addition to those below.

(This present list comprises endorsements recorded as of March 31, 2014.)

>>Click here or scroll to the bottom to endorse the statement

Organization / Institutional Endorsements

  1. International Peace Bureau (Nobel Laureate organization)
  2. Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom
  3. Global Network of Women Peacebuilders
  4. Pax Christi International
  5. Global Fund for Women
  6. Women Peacemakers Program (WPP), Hague, Netherlands
  7. International Institute on Peace Education
  8. Global Partnership for the Prevention of Armed Conflict (GPPAC), Netherlands
  9. World Council for Curriculum and Instruction
  10. People’s Movement for Human Rights Learning, USA
  11. Feminist Scholar/Activist Network on Demilitarization
  12. Global Kids, USA
  13. Canadian Voice of Women for Peace
  14. Peace Action, USA
  15. DidiBahini, Nepal
  16. Shantimalika, Nepal
  17. Permanent Peace Movement
  18. Middle East and North Africa Partnership for Prevention of Armed Conflict
  19. Women Engaged in Action on 1325
  20. Engender
  21. Liga de Mujeres Desplazados, Colombia
  22. Women in Black Belgrade
  23. Peace Education Center, Miriam College, Manila, Philippines
  24. Ashta no Kai, India
  25. Asian Circle 1325
  26. Okinawa Women Act Against Military Violence, Japan
  27. Latin American & Caribbean Committee for the Defense of the Human rights of Women
  28. Femlinkpacific
  29. Sansristi, India
  30. Nepal International Consumers Union
  31. Pacific Network for Peace and Disarmament
  32. Sonke Gender Justice Network (by Bafana Khumalo)
  33. Women’s UN Report Network
  34. South Asian Forum for Human Rights
  35. The Prajna Trust, Chenai (by Rita Manchanda)
  36. JASS (Just Associates)
  37. Manipur Women Gun Survivors
  38. Red de Educacion Popular Entre Mujeres de Latinoamerica y Caribe (REPEM LAC)
  39. Interfaith Council of New York
  40. UNESCO Chair for Peace – University of Puerto Rico
  41. Peace Geeks, Canada
  42. Alianza de Mujeres Viequenses, Puerto Rico
  43. Colectivo lle` (an anti-racist women’s collective in Puerto Rico)
  44. Ma'a Fafine mo e Famili Inc. / femlink
  45. Women's Active Museum on War and Peace, Japan
  46. Women Making Peace, South Korea
  47. National Peace Academy, USA
  48. Sierra Leone Peace Alliance and Salone Foundation
  49. The Center for Nonviolence and Democratic Education, University of Toledo OH, USA
  50. CONNECT, USA
  51. Operation 1325, Sweden
  52. SIGNIS, the World Catholic Association for Communication, Belgium
  53. Initiatives for International Dialogue (IID), Philippines
  54. Asia-Pacific Solidarity Coalition
  55. Mindanao Peaceweavers, Philippines
  56. SERAPAZ, Servicios y Acesoria para la Paz A.C., Mexico
  57. Nansen Dialogue Centre Montenegro
  58. Nansen Dialogue Centre Serbia
  59. Northeast Asian Regional Peacebuilding Institute (NARPI), South Korea
  60. CIASE, Colombia
  61. Center for Serenity, USA
  62. Women Peace Initiatives-Uganda
  63. Women Problems Research Union-Woman's Institute, Azerbaijan
  64. The Peaceful Educator Foundation, USA
  65. Nonviolence International, Canada
  66. Malaysian Physicians for Social Responsibility
  67. Naga Women's Union, India
  68. Basel Peace Office, Switzerland
  69. US Peace Council
  70. International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War - Turkey
  71. Women in Peacebuilding Network, WANEP Nigeria
  72. CHILDREN-Nepal
  73. GMCoP: Global Movement for the Culture of Peace, USA
  74. Peace Boat, Japan
  75. Center for Constitutional Rights, USA
  76. Alternatives to violence, Bogotá, Colombia
  77. Schools of Peace Foundation, Colombia
  78. Peace Support Network, USA
  79. Akson Nepal
  80. Asian Circle 1325, Philippines
  81. Institute for Peace and Security Studies at Addis Ababa University (IPSS AAU), Ethiopia
  82. Peace Union of Finland
  83. Latin American Circle of International Studies (LACIS), Mexico
  84. National Ethical Service, USA
  85. Women4NonViolence in Peace+Conflict Zones, Norway
  86. CENTRE FOR RESEARCH AND ACTION ON PEACE (KEDE), Greece
  87. DarfurWomen Action Group, USA
  88. Partners in Sustainable Development, Pakistan
  89. Non State Actors Forum-Zimbabwe
  90. Eugene City of Peace, USA
  91. School Sisters of Notre Dame, USA
  92. IHAN: International Health Awareness Network, USA
  93. Network of African Youth for Development - Ghana
  94. World Vision Advocacy Forum (WVAF), Nepal
  95. Philippine Women's Network for Peace & Security
  96. Centre For Peace Education Manipur (CFPEM), India
  97. PAN-Africa Peace Associates Network, Uganda
  98. Sonke Gender Justice Network, South Africa/Burundi
  99. African Migrant Women Association in South Africa (AMWASA)
  100. Global Campaign for Peace Education, USA
  101. ECCHR: European Center for Constitutional and Human Rights
  102. Peace Foundation Disarmament and Security Centre,
    Christchurch, New Zealand
  103. CDSC (Civilian Defence Research Center), Italy
  104. The Ribbon International, USA
  105. Berkshire Citizens for Peace and Justice (BCP&J), USA
  106. International Health Awareness Network, USA
  107. International Day of Peace NGO Committee at the UN
  108. Global Organisation for Life Development,(GOLD), India
  109. Peace Education Resource Centre (PERC), New Delhi, India
  110. International Fellowship of Reconciliation, the Netherlands
  111. Latin American Circle of International Studies (LACIS), Mexico
  112. HEALEverywhere (for survivors of domestic violence), USA
  113. Association for Women's Rights in Development (AWID), Global
  114. Le Mouvement de la Paix, France
  115. Feminist Peace Network, USA
  116. Peace is Loud, USA
  117. Femin Ijtihad/ Strategic Advocacy for Human Rights, Afghanistan
  118. Women United for Social,Economic&Total Empowerment (WUSETE) - Kenya
  119. Veterans For Peace ch. 159, USA
  120. Community Alliance of Lane County, USA
  121. Solider's Heart Inc.
  122. Cameroon Peace Foundation, Cameroon

 

Individual Endorsements
(Institutions listed for identification purposes only)

  1. Jody Williams, Nobel Peace Laureate and Chair, Nobel Women's Initiative, USA
  2. Mairead Corrigan-Maguire, Nobel Peace Laureate, Ireland
  3. Dr. Vandana Shiva, Navdanya Research Foundation for Science and Technology, India
  4. Alyn Ware, 2009 Right Livelihood Award Laureate, New Zealand
  5. András Bíró, 1995 Right Livelihood Award Laureate, Hungary
  6. Anwar Fazal, 1982 Right Livelihood Award Laureate, Malaysia
  7. Shrikrishna Upadhaya, 2010 Right Livelihood Award Laureate, Nepal
  8. Tarja Cronberg, Finland. Member, European Parliament (MEP). Board Member, International Peace Bureau (IPB). Chair, Finnish Peace Union.
  9. Ambassador Anwarul K. Chowdhury, Bangladesh
  10. Riane Eisler, Center for Partnership Studies, USA
  11. MinouTavarez Mirabel, MP, Dominican Republic; Chair, International Council, Parliamentarians for Global Action
  12. Peter Weiss, Vice President, Center for Constitutional Rights
  13. Prof. Ritu Dewan, Mumbai University
  14. Saloni Singh , Didibahini, Nepal
  15. Samita Karmacharya, Lalitpur Women Forum, Nepal
  16. Namuna Kahadga, PEACE, Nepal
  17. Kanti Bajracharya, Kathmsndu Mahila Manch, Nepal
  18. Sarita Kuwar, Bhaktapur, Nepal
  19. Manju Chaudhary, WPEDE, Parsa, Nepal
  20. Tony Jenkins, National Peace Academy, USA
  21. Prof. Anita Yudkin, University of Puerto Rico
  22. David J. Ragland, USA
  23. Janet Gerson, International Institute on Peace Education, USA
  24. Edward Kamara, Sierra Leone Peace Alliance & Salone Fdn
  25. Lapang Chrisantus Defuna'an, Centre for Conflict Management and Peace Studies,University of Jos, Jos Plateau State, Nigeria
  26. Tina Ottman, Kyoto University, Japan
  27. Victor Grizzaffi, USA
  28. Janet Weil, CODEPINK, USA
  29. Julie Ngozi Okeke, Women Initiative For Peace & Good Governance (WIPGG), Nigeria
  30. Jeffrey R. Heeney, Canada
  31. Margaret S. Fairman, USA
  32. Steven Gelb, University of San Diego, USA
  33. Dale Snauwaert, The University of Toledo, USA
  34. Larry M Warren, United Methodist Church, USA
  35. Fredrik S. Heffermehl, Norway
  36. Lisa Worth Huber, Academic Director, MA program Conflict Transformation, USA
  37. Ra Savage, New Zealand
  38. Lynida Darbes, USA
  39. Mary Lee Morrison, Pax Educare Consulting, USA
  40. Michael Abkin, National Peace Academy, USA
  41. Dr Lisa S Price, Canada
  42. Damilola Agbalajobi, Obafemi Awolowo University, Nigeria
  43. Stephanie Van Hook, USA
  44. Aaranya Rajasingam, Regional Centre for Strategic Studies, Sri Lanka
  45. Jill Strauss, USA
  46. Mark Chupp, Case Western Reserve University, USA
  47. Shazia Rafi, Secretary General, Parliamentarians for Global Action
  48. Alice Slater, Nuclear Age Peace Foundation, NY, USA
  49. Alfred L. Marder, President, International Association of Peace Messenger Cities, USA
  50. Jalna Hanmer, United Kingdom
  51. Kelly Guinan, USA
  52. Brian J Trautman, Berkshire Citizens for Peace and Justice, USA
  53. Professor Alicia Cabezudo, UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE ROSARIO , Rosario - Argentina
  54. Carmen Lauzon-Gatmaytan, Philippines
  55. Madelyn MacKay, Voice of Women for Peace Canada
  56. Miriam Saage, Germany
  57. G. Gala, gcmp, Canada/USA
  58. Christine Newland, Canada
  59. Sofia Giranda, University of Jember, Indonesia
  60. Erin Niemela, USA
  61. Richard Matthews, Canada
  62. Unto Vesa, TAPRI, Finland
  63. Cécile Barbeito Thonon, peace educator, Escola de Cultura de Pau (School for a Culture of Peace ), Spain
  64. Danielle Goldberg, Program on Peace-building and Rights, Columbia University, USA
  65. J.V. Connors, Ph.D., USA
  66. Mrs. Eryl Court, Canadian Voice of Women for Peace, Canada
  67. Alba Arrieta, Colombia
  68. Donna Torsu, Atlas Corps, Ghana
  69. Dr. Shyrl Topp Matias, USA
  70. Kazuyo Yamane, Japan
  71. Rev. Dr. Priscilla Eppinger, USA
  72. Cecilia Deme, Kurve Wustrow, Hungary
  73. Som Prasad Niroula, Nepal Institute of Peace (NIP), Nepal
  74. Tigist Yeshiwas, IPSS, AAU, Ethiopia
  75. Chieko Baba, Seisen University, Japan
  76. Daniela Rippitsch, Austria
  77. Anitta Kynsilehto, University of Tampere, Finland
  78. Lynne Woehrle, USA
  79. Kristin Famula, National Peace Academy, USA
  80. Dehanna Rice, USA
  81. Jacqueline Stein, USA
  82. Bev Tittle-Baker, USA
  83. I Spellings, GMCoP, USA
  84. Mintze van der Velde, Switzerland
  85. Irene Dawa, Uganda/Italy
  86. Bianca Cseke, Romania
  87. Rachel E. McGinnis, USA
  88. Shahla TabassumFatima Jinnah Women University, The Mall, Rawalpindi, Pakistan
  89. Donna J. McInnis, Soka University, USA/Japan
  90. Wim Laven, Instructor of Conflict Resolution, USA
  91. Miass Abdelaziz , Sudan
  92. Amel Aldehaib, Sudan
  93. Anam Mushtaq, Fatima Jinnah Women University, Pakistan
  94. Alisa Klein, USA
  95. Dr Morgan Jeranyama, Non State Actors Forum-Zimbabwe
  96. Beverley Stewart, International Anglican Women's Network, Canada
  97. Chizuru Asahina, Japan
  98. Carlyn Jorgensen, USA
  99. Ifigenia Georgiadou, Greece
  100. Charles Christopher Weisbecker, USA
  101. Staci M Alziebler-Perkins, NYC Genocide Prevention Coalition, USA
  102. Jeff Garringer, USA
  103. Jamie Snyder, USA
  104. Denay Ulrich, USA
  105. Rana Ehtisham Rabbani, GAMIP, Pakistan
  106. Aida Santos Maranan, WEDPRO, Inc., Philippines
  107. Mary Hope Schwoebel, USA
  108. Genoveva Evelyn (Gennie) Ramos, New Zealand
  109. Leban Serto, India
  110. Signe Atim Allimadi, Gulu, Northern Ugadna
  111. Danilo B. Galang, Philippines
  112. Gedefaw, Zewdu Belete, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia
  113. Lauren Wadsworth, USA
  114. Guyo Liban, National Cohesion and Integration Commission, Kenya
  115. Luisa Ribeiro, Portugal
  116. Matthew Johnson, USA
  117. M. Madasamy (IPBIM), Guiness World Records Holder, Member, International Peace Bureau, India
  118. Emily Doherty, Ireland
  119. Susan Mason, USA
  120. Kelly Guinan, Peace Support Network, USA
  121. Dr. Sorosh Roshan, USA
  122. Eid Abu Sirhan, Jordan
  123. Timothy Elder, USA
  124. Sharon Cohen, USA
  125. Gita Brooke, co-founder Operation Peace Through Unity (OPTU), New Zealand
  126. Dr Ibrahim Choji, National Institute for Policy and Strategic Studies, Nigeria
  127. Prof. Elizabeth L. Enriquez, University of the Philippines
  128. Sandra Turner, USA
  129. Nick Redding, AC4, Columbia University, USA
  130. Jason Lemieux, USA
  131. Christina Dawkins, USA
  132. Niki I., USA
  133. Rajarshi Guha Ray, India
  134. Betty Sitka, USA
  135. Godwin Yidana, Ghana
  136. Yuriko Yabu, Kinokuni Children's Village Senior High School, Japan
  137. Sundas, Fatima Jinnah Women University, Pakistan
  138. Tasmia Matloob, Pakistan
  139. Sonia Randhawa, Malaysia
  140. Achan Mungleng, India
  141. Ashley Walsh, Canada
  142. Adam Khan, Canada
  143. Luis Gutierrez-Esparza, Latin American Circle of International Studies (LACIS), Mexico
  144. Fran H. , USA
  145. Steve Nation, USA
  146. Fatoumata Toure, Global Pan African Movement , Uganda
  147. Lester Kurtz, George Mason University, USA
  148. Miriam Sobá Peterson, Vieques, Puerto Rico
  149. Penelope Hetherington, Canada
  150. Tina Ottman, Japan
  151. Marion Malcolm, USA
  152. Shelley Corteville, USA
  153. Kirk Boyd, USA
  154. Sally Jo Gilbert de Vargas, Soldier's Heart Seattle, Interfaith Community Sanctuary, USA
  155. Michael E. Peterson, USA
  156. Adriene J. Royal, USA
  157. Aysha W., United Kingdom
  158. Kristina Brun Madsen, Denmark
  159. Hillary Siedler, USA
  160. Barbara Yoshida, USA
  161. Patricia Green, USA
  162. Marsha McDonald, USA
  163. Laura Patterson, USA
  164. Patricia Raney, USA
  165. Ben Bonner, USA
  166. Stan Taylor, USA
  167. Teresa Coppola, USA
  168. Joseph Calbreath, USA
  169. Jennifer Hixon, USA
  170. Michael Leeds, USA
  171. Mike Colkett, USA
  172. Chontel Pelkey, USA
  173. June Fothergill, USA
  174. Lori Lonergan, USA
  175. Keith Royal, USA
  176. Susan Joyce, USA
  177. Jan Walter, USA
  178. Christopher Hurt, USA
  179. Sue Lange, USA
  180. Mary Jane Fothergill, USA
  181. Prof. Dr. Susanne Nothhafft, Katholische Stiftungsfachhochschule München, Germany
  182. Jay Yamashiro, Austria
  183. Patricia Green, USA
  184. Swarna Rajagopalan, The Prajnya Trust, India

 
About Us | Site Map | Contact Us | last updated 12-10-2010